ПОВЫШЕНИЕ ЭФФЕКТИВНОСТИ ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНОГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ КАК ФАКТОРА ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО РАЗВИТИЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫХ ГРАЖДАНСКИХ СЛУЖАЩИХ
Бушуева Ирина Петровна.
Сибирский институт управления – филиал Российской академии народного хозяйства при Президенте Российской федерации, г. Новосибирск, старший преподаватель кафедры управления персоналом, кандидат социологических наук, email@example.com.
Constantly changing social and economic conditions, and also multidimensional character of the tasks facing public authorities predetermine need of continuous professional development of the public civil servants for increase of productivity of professional activity. Professional development of the public civil servants becomes a key problem of the state personnel policy and functioning of public service.
The main program document defining and fixing the directions of the state personnel policy in this sphere actively discussed federal program «Development of Public Service of the Russian Federation (2015 - 2018) and Plan of Measures on Development of System of Public Service of the Russian Federation till 2018» is urged to become (further – the Program). In the Program the most important principle of the state personnel policy made the demand of ensuring continuous professional development of the public civil servants. However the judgment of problems of professional development of civil servants is impossible without deep studying of this process and, first of all, additional professional education.
The researches concerning vocational training of the public civil servants were devoted to various aspects: to features of functioning of system of a vocational education and additional professional education of the public civil servants [Aksenova, 1999; Zinchenko, 1990; Klyucharev, 2014; Serazhetdinova, 2014], to organizational and methodical questions of training of public servants [Vasilenko, 2007; Korostyleva, 2014; Romanov, 2000; Romanova, Vasilenko, 2009], to quality of training of civil servants and application of innovative educational technologies in the course of preparation [Litvintseva, 2010; Usoltceva, 2009; Taushkanov, 2013], to features of realization of competence-based approach in training of the public civil servants [Vasilenko, 2014; Zimnyaya, 2003; Kudryavtseva, 2011, 2013; Mikheyev, 2012; Boyatzis, 1982], etc.
Practically all authors in a varying degree connect a vocational education in various forms with professional development, and it is quite often possible to meet substitution of concepts. In our opinion, the concept «professional development» is broader, than training though the last is its indispensable condition and, on an apt expression of the famous classic of psychology of development L.S. Vygotsky «… training leads development …» [Vygotsky, 2005].
Conditions of professional development of civil servants are regulated in the Federal law No. 79-FZ «About the public civil service of the Russian Federation» where in chapter 13 among the priority directions of formation of personnel structure are specified:
1) vocational training of civil servants according to programs of professional development of civil servants;
2) assistance to the official growth of civil servants on a competitive basis;
3) rotation of civil servants;
4) formation of a personnel reserve on a competitive basis and its effective use, etc.
At the same time, legislatively it isn't established to whom obligations for professional development of employees who is the main subject of this activity are specifically assigned. Development department of public service of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of the Russian Federation among which questions of maintaining, first of all, legal regulation and institutional development of the public civil service, can't fully act as the main customer and the coordinator of activities for professional development of civil servants as primary activity of department is concentrated on development of information and methodical materials on scientific methodically, educational methodically and information analytically to ensuring additional professional education of the public civil servants (further – APE PCS).
In the Program the task to modernize the operating system of APE PCS for what it is necessary is set:
– to introduce practice of passing of training of employees;
– to improve mechanisms of the organization of training of civil servants and interaction of government institutions with the educational organizations which are engaged in training of civil servants when forming the APE programs;
– to introduce the mechanism of professional and public accreditation of additional professional programs of professional retraining;
– to create uniform bank of basic additional professional programs and methodical, analytical and information materials for self-education of civil servants.
However the research of organization APE PCS undertaken by us showed that in practice of this activity there are problems which are negatively influencing its efficiency as a factor of professional development. So, imperfection of the federal legislation on education and the organization of purchases of educational services results in difficulties in the organization of retraining and professional development of employees. Adoption of the Federal law of 05.04.2013 No. 44-FZ «About contract system in the sphere of purchases of goods, works, services for ensuring the state and municipal needs» instead of the become invalid Federal law of 21.07.2005 No. 94-FZ «About placement of orders for deliveries of goods, performance of work, rendering services for the state and municipal needs», significantly complicated interaction of government bodies and educational institutions. According to a number of experts, the form of electronic auction is unacceptable for educational services, besides, there are no accurate requirements to educational institutions that leads to participation in auctions of the organizations incapable to provide high-quality educational services, but offering lower prices.
It should be noted that the Federal law which came into force in 2013 «About education» No. 273-FZ of 29.12.2012 introduced amendments in structure of an education system: additional professional education became the type of education (but not level, as it was earlier) directed on comprehensive satisfaction of needs of the person for intellectual, spiritual and moral, physical and (or) professional improvement. Besides, training is excluded from types of additional professional education (item 12, Art. 76). It, in our opinion, significantly limits ways and reduces efficiency of activities for professional development of employees. Many experts and practicians said that training, at all its labor input and cost intensity, admits to one of the most effective ways of training of adults. So, in our poll of heads and specialists of HR departments of state bodies of 69% of respondents noted this form of professional development as the most effective, along with temporary replacement of a higher position (46%) and implementation of the project work (38%).
However the organization of training of the public civil servants demands methodical providing. First of all this form of APE has to be regulated at the legislative level. It is necessary to define the purposes, the principles and methods of passing of training, a form of total control of level of formation of the demanded competences. The organization of training has to provide an assessment of level of professionalism and competence of employees for what it is necessary to develop indicators on which the behavior, the personality and activity of the employee can be estimated.
Results of sociological poll of civil servants allowed to reveal the attitude towards various aspects of additional professional education. So, according to respondents, the public civil servants pass professional retraining and professional development as «it is necessary to acquire new knowledge, abilities, skills» (56,4%), «to work more effectively» (36,5%), «for career advance» (35,9%). Thus over the last 5 years passed a vocational education (preparation, retraining, professional development, training) of 55,9% of respondents.
The insufficient share of employees which connects training with increase of efficiency of office activity attracts attention. At the same time it has to become the purpose of programs of professional development and all system of APE in general.
As shows experiment of the Siberian institute of management – branch of a RANEPA development of additional professional education of the public civil servants has to take place in the direction of the organization of the practice-focused training. This task can be solved by attraction to work at advanced training courses of the qualified teachers. Results of poll of employees show that the teachers capable to connect the theory to practice of real activity and problems (66%) are most successful are less effective as teachers of practice from among the public or municipal servants (19%), scientists-theorists and teachers-subject teachers are absolutely inefficient.
Besides, according to the respondents who are trained a practical training (22%), experience discussion (16%) and trainings (14%) while to lectures no more than 10% of school hours have to be allowed have to occupy the most part of the program. Similar forms of occupations realize the principle of a practical orientation of training.
The important direction of development of additional professional education should be considered changes in approaches to development of curricula and DPO programs in connection with the approval of Federal state requirements to a contents minimum. From educational programs of professional retraining orientation to active methods of training, formation is required during training of concrete professional competences now.
Modernization of system of APE of civil servants has to be directed on improvement of process of training on the basis of the modular principle and accumulative system. The modular principle of creation of programs allows to create variable programs of professional development, using various modules, and the accumulative system gives the chance to project individual educational trajectories.
At the same time, a key condition of increase of efficiency of APE is its organization on the basis of individual plans of professional development of the public civil servants.
Now in development of individual plans of professional development of the public civil servants there is a set of the problems revealed during expert poll of heads and specialists of HR departments. So, existence in state bodies of normative documents – regulations on training and individual development plans is noted by only 27% and 17% of respondents respectively. Thus the contradiction comes to light: only a little more a half of experts (59%) confirms that individual plans of professional development are developed for all employees of state bodies, and 38% of respondents claim that these plans are developed only for the employees included in a personnel reserve. Existence of methodical recommendations about formation of individual development plans was confirmed only by 25% of representatives of HR departments. Such data allow to draw a conclusion that professional development of employees is regulated insufficiently and more formally.
It isn't promoted also by absence in the legislation of an accurate regulation of the subject of this activity. Theoretically at least four subjects can solve this problem: public civil servant, his direct head, specialist of HR department of state agency responsible for this direction of activity, experts of the centers of an independent assessment. However in each case, along with positive sides, there are also restrictions (table 1).
Distinctions in approaches to development of individual plans of professional development depending on the subject of activity.
Subjects of development of the individual plan of professional development
Public civil servants
1. A reflection of own professional development in the context of the chosen professional way
2. Self-assessment of level of professional knowledge and abilities
3. Understanding of the reasons of the problems arising in professional activity
1. Limitation of the chosen forms of professional development, the formalistic approach is possible
2. Choice of the expensive forms of development inadequate to requirements.
3. Discrepancy of personal needs of development and requirements of state body
1. Knowledge of requirements of division
2. Opportunity to correlate problems of activity to a role and need of development of each civil servant
3. Knowledge of specific features of employees, personal qualities, motivations, etc.
1. Insufficiency of knowledge and abilities in planning implementation
2. A formalistic approach because of misunderstanding of need of this activity
3. Subjective (perhaps prejudiced) attitude towards certain subordinates
Specialists of HR department of state institutions
1. Existence of special knowledge and abilities in the field of planning of professional development (as a result of preparation)
2. Participation in formation of the budget allocated for professional development
3. Ability to define the target directions of professional development for state institutions
1. Congestion work and impossibility qualitatively to develop individual plans for all civil servants of state body
2. Impossibility to consider specific features of civil servants when planning their professional development
3. Lack of accurate coordination of actions between all participants of process
Experts of the appraisal centers and professional development
1. The high quality of work caused by qualification, experience
2. Independent character of an assessment, subjectivity exception
3. Efficiency of implementation of the order and complexity of the proposed solutions
1. Demands financial expenses
2. Demands creation of a standard basis – inclusion of the relevant provisions in local regulations of state agencies
3. Demands the corresponding organizational support from state agencies.
For increase of efficiency of activities for development of individual plans of professional development it is necessary to distribute responsibility between all subjects. In our opinion, the public civil servant has to be the initiator of the professional development, based on a self-assessment of level of professional knowledge and abilities. Besides, identification of the reasons of the problems arising at the public servant in professional activity can be promoted by certification by results of which individual plans of professional development have to be developed. Especially as these personnel technologies coincide on the regulated terms of their carrying out: certification is carried out 1 time in 3 years, and individual plans of professional development are formed for 3 years.
This approach changes a role of the unit manager in whom the public civil servant as the accent in its estimated activity is displaced on definition of opportunities of the public servant and options of his professional development works. Thus, from procedure quite often formal, certification becomes developing, and allows to provide control over the implementation of the individual plan of professional development.
When developing the individual plan of professional development to heads it is necessary to define together with the public civil servants the main actions and forms of professional development taking into account both individual needs of the employee, and problems of development of division in general.
For improvement of coordination of activities for professional development specialists of HR departments of state bodies should concentrate attention on organizational and methodical ensuring activity: to development of forms of the individual plan of professional development of the public civil servant and corresponding report; creation of the methodical recommendations including as examples of competences with their behavioral indicators, and the kinds of activity directed on their formation.
As work on management of professional development of the public civil servants demands special knowledge and abilities in the field of planning and the organization of professional development, specialists of HR departments require passing of the corresponding preparation across this direction of activity.
For formation of competences of management of professional development of the public civil servants we developed and approved the «Professional Development of the Public Civil Servants» module which is switched on in profile part of professional retraining «Human resource management of the public civil service». The module is intended for heads of structural divisions, heads and specialists of HR departments of state bodies.
The module includes three disciplines, thematically connected among themselves: «System of professional development of employees», «Directions and forms of professional development of employees», «Planning and programming of professional development». Each of disciplines forms one of components of competence of professional development – knowledge, skills, and their consecutive studying promotes creation at listeners of complete representation and the valuable relation to this activity.
As a result of training at listeners the following competences have to be created:
– the nobility legislative and the regulations regulating training, office growth in the public civil service;
– to own system ideas of the principles and methods of professional development of the public civil servants;
– to be able to organize work on professional development of employees and to estimate its efficiency;
– to be able to analyze own career potential and to plan office growth, and also to estimate the career potential of employees and to organize their career development and training.
The program of the module and methodical providing to it can be used and at the organization of professional development of civil servants. In our opinion, subjects of the module can and have to join in programs of courses for various directions and for different professional categories. First of all, the matters have to be studied by the employees for the first time appointed to positions of public service and the employees enlisted in a personnel reserve. As total work there has to be a development (or adjustment) the individual plan of professional development on the basis of studied and according to the offered methodical recommendations. It will give to training an applied orientation and will increase its productivity.
Especially it is necessary to stop for roles of such subject as experts of the Appraisal centers and professional development of the public civil servants. The idea of Assessment & Development Centre as technologies of an assessment isn't new, but in the sphere of public administration is practically not used [T.Yu. Bazarov, 2011].
It should be noted that in modern business adoption of many administrative decisions connected with an assessment, training, career development of employees doesn't do without involvement of independent auditor and consulting agencies.
Advantages of it are obvious: high quality of the services rendered by professionals; receiving independent opinion; the organization of work under the individual order; minimization of efforts of HR departments of the organizations; an integrated approach to the solution of an administrative task.
Main goal of such approach is concentration on the customer's problems, the help in implementation of progressive changes in activity of the organization by finding of optimum ways of the solution of the put problems and assistance in their practical realization.
Now it is possible to observe separate elements of application of this technology in practice of work of state bodies and examples of creation of specialized structures.
For this reason for the solution of a problem of increase of efficiency of additional professional education as factor of professional development of the public civil servants we offer to create on the basis of the operating regional institutes of system of a RANEPA specialized structural divisions – the Appraisal centers and developments of public servants – representing organizational structures uniting highly qualified specialists.
In our opinion, the main functions of the Appraisal center and development of public servants have to become:
– participation in carrying out estimated procedures of public servants (certification, qualification examination, other types of a business assessment);
– development and implementation of individual development plans of public servants, including selection, development and organization of programs of training;
– participation in formation of all types of reserves of shots, organization of selection and support of programs of development of a personnel reserve and reserve of administrative shots.
The center can perform works both on orders of state bodies, and on individual demands of civil servants. Work of specialists of the Center can be also carried out as on places, and remotely with use of modern electronic means.
In order that the conclusions and consultations of specialists of the Center for results of the estimated and developing procedures carried not only recommendatory, but also binding character, is obviously necessary creation of a standard basis – inclusion of provisions in local regulations of state agencies and the corresponding organizational and resource support.
This approach to planning and the organization of additional professional education for the purpose of strengthening of its influence on professional development of the public civil servants will allow to provide the complex solution of problems and to bring activities for professional development to qualitatively new level.
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